《植物生理学报》 2023, 59(2): 315-323
花椒(Zanthoxylum armatum)开黄花后不能正常结实, 严重影响了相关产业发展。为探究花椒开黄花的生理特点及其防治关键药剂, 本研究对不同时期花椒形态进行了观察, 对多种植物激素含量进行了测定测定。以重庆多地九叶青花椒(Z. armatum var. novemfolius)正常株和黄花株为试材, 采用石蜡切片法对花椒形态进行观察并对花椒黄花株和正常株花叶数量质量进行统计, 采用高效液相色谱法和酶联免疫法对茎尖、花序的植物激素指标进行测定分析。结果表明: (1)花椒开黄花的生理实质为雌蕊的缺失和雄蕊的出现。花芽分化期黄花株花芽发育时间比正常株早, 且分化程度更高。初花期和盛花期黄花株表现为雄蕊异常发育、雌蕊缺失特征, 正常株则为雌蕊发育; 且在盛花期时, 黄花株花芽表现出发育时间早、花芽数量过多的特征。花椒黄花株小花质量、小花数量和花叶质量比分别是正常株的1.61倍、2.86倍和7.65倍, 黄花株新生叶质量降低23.3%, 数量下降55.6%。(2)脱落酸(ABA)和水杨酸(SA)在黄花株和正常株的秋季茎尖及次年春季花序中的含量差异显著。黄花株秋季茎尖中ABA含量下降了45.6%, SA含量上升了1.18倍。(3)喷施三碘苯甲酸(TIBA)药物能够改善花椒开黄花现象。喷施100 mg∙L−1 TIBA后, 春季黄花株中的SA含量较正常株已无显著差异; 喷施500 mg∙L−1 TIBA后, 黄花株中ABA和SA含量较正常株均无显著差异。综上结果显示ABA和SA在花椒开黄花中起到关键性作用。
关键词：花椒; 生理性质; 雄蕊发育; 脱落酸; 水杨酸; 三碘苯甲酸
Corresponding author: LI Zhenlun; E-mail: email@example.com
Zanthoxylum armatum with yellow flowers cannot bear fruit normally, which strongly affects the development of related industries. In order to explore the physiological characteristics of Z. armatum with yellow flower and its key control agents, the morphology in different periods was observed and the contents of various plant hormones were determined. The Z. armatum var. novemfolius in Chongqing was used as the material. The morphology was observed by the paraffin section, and the amounts of florets and leaves were counted. The phytohormones of stem tips and inflorescences were measured and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The results are as follows: (1) The physiological essence of Z. armatum with yellow flower is pistil deficiency and stamen development. Compared with normal plants, buds of yellow-flower flowers plants develop earlier and have higher differentiation degree. During the early flowering and the full flowering stages, yellow-flower plants showed the characteristics of stamen development and pistil degeneration, while the normal plants were the opposite. Besides, the floret weight, floret amount and floret/leaf mass ratio of yellow-flower plants are 1.61 times, 2.86 times and 7.65 times higher than those of normal plants, respectively. The new leaf mass and amount decreased by 23.3% and 55.6%, respectively. (2) The contents of abscisic acid and salicylic acid showed significant differences in stem apex in autumn and inflorescence in next spring between yellow-flower and normal plants. Abscisic acid level decreased by 45.6%, and salicylic acid level increased by 1.18 times in autumn. (3) Spraying triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) can decrease the phenomenon of Z. armatum with yellow flowers. There was no significant difference in salicylic acid content in yellow-flower plants compared with normal plants after spraying 100 mg∙L−1 TIBA in spring, and there was no significant difference in abscisic acid and salicylic acid after spraying 500 mg∙L−1 TIBA. These results suggest that abscisic acid and salicylic acid play a key role in flowering of Z. armatum.
Key words: Zanthoxylum armatum; physiological property; stamen development; abscisic acid; salicylic acid; triiodobenzoic acid
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